Toward Improving Coastal Fog Prediction

Sponsored by Marine Meteorology and Space Program Code 322M, the Ocean, Atmosphere and Space Research Division and the Office of Naval Research


  1. Fernando, H. J. S., et al. (2021).  C-FOG: Life of Coastal Fog, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 102(2), E244-E272.  Retrieved Mar 13, 2021, from https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/bams/102/2/BAMS-D-19-0070.1.xml 

Supplemental material: https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0070.2

  1. Chen, C., Zhang, M., Perrie, W., Chang, R., Gultepe, I., Fernando, H. J. S., & Chen, X., 2021: A case study: Evaluation of PAFOG one-D model with advection in simulations of fog/stratus from C-FOG experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126, e2021JD034812. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JD034812

  2. Wainwright, C., Chang, R. Y.-W., & Richter, D. (2021). Aerosol activation in radiation fog at the atmospheric radiation program Southern Great Plains site. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126, e2021JD035358. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JD035358


BAMS Special Issue: Toward Improving Coastal-Fog Prediction – the C-FOG Project, eds. Clive E. Dorman, Andrey A. Grachev, Ismail Gultepe, Harindra J. S. Fernando. Boundary-Layer MeteorologyVolume 181, Issue 2-3 

  1. Dorman, C.E., Grachev, A.A., Gultepe, I. et al. Toward Improving Coastal-Fog Prediction (C-FOG). Boundary-Layer Meteorol 181, 167–170 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-021-00664-8

  2. Dorman, C.E., Hoch, S.W., Gultepe, I. et al. Large-Scale Synoptic Systems and Fog During the C-FOG Field Experiment. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 181, 171–202 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-021-00641-1

  3. Gultepe, I., Pardyjak, E., Hoch, S.W. et al. Coastal-Fog Microphysics Using In-Situ Observations and GOES-R Retrievals. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 181, 203–226 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-021-00622-4

  4. Gultepe, I., Heymsfield, A.J., Fernando, H.J.S. et al. A Review of Coastal Fog Microphysics During C-FOG. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 181, 227–265 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-021-00659-5

  5. Wang, Q., Yamaguchi, R.T., Kalogiros, J.A. et al. Microphysics and Optical Attenuation in Fog: Observations from Two Coastal Sites. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 181, 267–292 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-021-00675-5

  6. Wang, Q., Yamaguchi, R.T., Kalogiros, J.A. et al. Correction to: Microphysics and Optical Attenuation in Fog: Observations from Two Coastal Sites. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 181, 293–294 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-021-00680-8

  7. Perelet, A.O., Gultepe, I., Hoch, S.W. et al. Discriminating Fog and Rain at the Kilometre Scale Using the Extinction from Collocated Infrared and Microwave Scintillometers. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 181, 295–315 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-021-00609-1

  8. Wagh, S., Krishnamurthy, R., Wainwright, C. et al. Study of Stratus-Lowering Marine-Fog Events Observed During C-FOG. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 181, 317–344 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-021-00670-w

  9. Chisholm, N., Nagare, B., Wainwright, C. et al. Characterizing Atmospheric Aerosols off the Atlantic Canadian Coast During C-FOG. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 181, 345–364 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-021-00673-7

  10. Wang, S., Fernando, H.J.S., Dorman, C. et al. Analysis of Coastal Fog from a Ship During the C-FOG Campaign. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 181, 365–393 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-021-00667-5

  11. Grachev, A.A., Krishnamurthy, R., Fernando, H.J.S. et al. Atmospheric Turbulence Measurements at a Coastal Zone with and without Fog. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 181, 395–422 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-021-00655-9

  12. Grachev, A.A., Krishnamurthy, R., Fernando, H.J.S. et al. Correction to: Atmospheric Turbulence Measurements at a Coastal Zone with and without Fog. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 181, 423–424 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-021-00672-8

  13. Lozovatsky, I., Wainwright, C., Creegan, E. et al. Ocean Turbulence and Mixing Near the Shelf Break South-East of Nova Scotia. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 181, 425–441 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-020-00576-z

  14. Dimitrova, R., Sharma, A., Fernando, H.J.S. et al. Simulations of Coastal Fog in the Canadian Atlantic with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 181, 443–472 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-021-00662-w

  15. Wainwright, C., Richter, D. Investigating the Sensitivity of Marine Fog to Physical and Microphysical Processes Using Large-Eddy Simulation. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 181, 473–498 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-020-00599-6

  16. Bardoel, S.L., Horna Muñoz, D.V., Grachev, A.A. et al. Fog Formation Related to Gravity Currents Interacting with Coastal Topography. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 181, 499–521 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-021-00638-w

  17. Richter, D.H., MacMillan, T. & Wainwright, C. A Lagrangian Cloud Model for the Study of Marine Fog. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 181, 523–542 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-020-00595-w


C-FOG Program Site


C-FOG News

Data from months in a fog paint a clearer picture for future forecasts, Nina Welding, October 27, 2021.


ND Clearing Up Predictions: Notre Dame engineer studies coastal fog to improve weather forecasting. Brendan O'Shaughnessy. 2021. 


NTV News coverage of C-FOG. 2021. 2:03 minute video)